Understanding Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome: Causes, Symptoms and Treatments

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Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (EDS): An In-Depth Look

Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (EDS) refers to a collection of inherited disorders that predominantly impact the skin and joints, but can also affect other organs. At its core, EDS is a connective tissue disorder. These tissues, which encompass skin, tendons, ligaments, and many internal organs, are rendered weak or overly flexible in EDS patients due to abnormalities in the body's connective tissue. The resulting hyper-mobility often makes EDS patients more susceptible to musculoskeletal injuries and, consequently, chronic pain.

Understanding EDS Genetics

Understanding the genetics of EDS is crucial, as it gives insight into the way the syndrome is passed down through generations. Genes can be thought of as blueprints guiding the development and functioning of every cell in an individual's body. When a gene mutates, or changes from its original form, it can occasionally result in disorders, malfunctions, or malformations. Different mutations in connective tissue genes lead to the various forms of EDS.

EDS can be inherited in one of three primary ways:  

  • Autosomal Dominant Inheritance: This is the inheritance pattern for some of the prevalent forms of EDS, such as the classical type (formerly "Type I" and "Type II"). In this form, an individual only needs one copy of the mutant EDS gene from one parent to inherit the disorder. Thus, there's a 50% probability for a child to inherit EDS if one parent carries the gene.  
  • Autosomal Recessive Inheritance: For the syndrome to manifest under this pattern, both genes in the pair must be EDS genes, meaning a child would need to inherit one mutant gene from each parent. With every pregnancy, there's a 25% chance the offspring will have EDS, and a 50% likelihood they'll be a carrier – having one EDS gene but not displaying symptoms.  
  • X-Linked Recessive Inheritance: This is how Vascular EDS is passed down. The genes for this are found on the X chromosome, which also carries genes determining a child's sex. If a male inherits the EDS gene, he will have the disorder. However, if a female inherits one EDS gene, she becomes a carrier.

Variability of EDS

It's essential to note that there are at least 13 recognized types of EDS, and the symptoms manifest differently depending on the specific type one has. Common forms, such as the classical type, may exhibit symptoms such as:  

  • Joint problems leading to frequent dislocations, often in areas like the shoulders, knees, hips, collarbone, or jaw.  
  • Fragile, easily bruised or torn skin.  
  • Nearsightedness, occasionally to an extreme degree.

More rare types of EDS  might display other symptoms, ranging from gum diseases, spine curvatures, blood clotting issues, severe eye conditions, and pulmonary problems. Vascular EDS can lead to severe complications due to weakened blood vessels, intestines, or uterus.

EDS, Fertility, and Pregnancy

It's also essential to discuss how EDS intersects with fertility and pregnancy. Certain forms, especially vascular EDS, can present grave complications during childbirth, like excessive bleeding or premature births. As such, any woman with EDS should consult with a healthcare professional familiar with the syndrome when considering pregnancy.

Living with EDS

Though EDS presents a plethora of challenges, it's worth noting that many with the syndrome can lead fulfilling, active lives. Strategies such as self-management, exercises to improve joint stability, avoiding certain activities that might lead to injury, and regular check-ups with EDS specialists can make a significant difference. However, the journey might necessitate additional support, such as from genetic counselors, psychologists, or other health professionals who can offer guidance on managing the disorder.

Regenerative medicine specialists may also be able to offer interventional treatments for musculoskeletal pain brought on by EDS. Among these are the Regenexx treatments  , which employ a proprietary and specialized approach for harnessing the body's natural healing mechanisms. By utilizing platelet-rich plasma and bone marrow concentrate injections, Regenexx aims to boost the body's ability to heal damaged tissues. Regenexx providers like Dr. Matthew Kohler can potentially offer EDS patients a new avenue for pain management and improved joint function. Additionally, these recent advances may also serve as an alternative pathway to relief without the need for surgery.

Furthermore, as with any condition, open communication about the disorder's implications is paramount. For children with EDS, parents should inform teachers, caregivers, and peers about the syndrome to prevent misconceptions or misunderstandings, especially since the frequent cuts and bruises EDS patients might experience can be mistakenly attributed to child abuse. 


EDS is a multifaceted disorder with a profound impact on those diagnosed. While the genetic nuances of EDS can seem intricate, understanding them is fundamental to grasping the syndrome's nature. With the right knowledge and support, those with EDS can navigate its challenges and lead enriched lives. And as medical research progresses, there is hope for even more effective treatments and interventions for EDS in the future. If you are interested in the Regenexx treatments offered by Dr. Matthew Kohler, book your initial consultation at Ospina Medical today.

Written By: Cherubina Rubannelsonkumar

Edited By: Camden Rowe

* All information subject to change. Images may contain models. Individual results are not guaranteed and may vary.